The Commodity Flows Survey


The Commodity Flow Survey (CFS) is the primary source of national and state-level data on domestic freight shipments by American establishments in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, auxiliaries, and selected retail industries. Data is provided on the types, origins and destinations, values, weights, modes of transport, distance shipped, and ton-miles of commodities shipped. The CFS is a shipper-based survey and is conducted every five years as part of the Economic Census. It provides a modal picture of national freight flows, and represents the only publicly available source of commodity flow data for the highway mode. The CFS was conducted in 1993, 1997, 2002, 2007, and most recently in 2012.


Industry Coverage

The 2007 CFS covers business establishments with paid employees that are located in the United States and are classified using the 2002 NAICS in mining, manufacturing, wholesale, and selected retail and services trade industries, namely, electronic shopping and mail-order houses, fuel dealers, and publishers. Additionally, the survey covers auxiliary establishments (i.e., warehouses and managing offices) of multi-establishments companies.

Shipment Coverage

The CFS collects data on shipments originating from within-scope industries, including exports. Imports are not included until the point that they leave the importer’s initial domestic location for shipment to another location. The survey does not cover shipments originating from business establishments located in Puerto Rico and other U.S. possessions and territories.



First Year: 1993

Last Year: 2007

Frequency: Since 1997, the survey has been conducted in years ending in 2 or 7, aligning it with (and as a component of) the economic census.

CFS data forms the basis for the Federal Highway Administration’s (FHWA) Freight Analysis Framework (FAF3), a model that displays by mode the movement of goods over the national transportation network. In addition, the CFS Hazardous Materials report is the sole source of hazardous materials flow data available for the highway mode.

Data Collection Methods and Limitations

Beginning with the 2007 CFS, a sample of 100,000 establishments is selected based on geographic location and industry. Each establishment selected for the CFS sample is mailed a questionnaire for each of its four reporting weeks. Each sampled establishment is asked to report on a sample of individual shipments during a one-week period in each calendar quarter. Establishments classified in transportation, construction, and most retail and services industries are excluded from the survey. Farms, fisheries, foreign establishments, and most government-owned establishments are also excluded.

The CFS sample size has varied between 50,000 and 200,000 establishments, depending on survey year. Varying sample sizes may result in differing margins of error. Auxiliary Issue: Auxiliaries present special scoping and sizing challenges. Auxiliary is an establishment of a multi-establishment company that provides support to the rest of the company (ex. Headquarters offices, regional offices, data processing facilities, training facilities, warehouses, and distribution centers). For each CFS year, it is difficult to determine whether auxiliary establishments are doing any shipping for their company, and if so, how much. As a result, past surveys have many sampled auxiliaries which turned out to be non-shippers, and measures of shipping activity estimated for sampling and editing purposes were frequently substantially inaccurate. The 2002 CFS uses a different methodology for classifying auxiliaries than previous versions, which may result in unique challenges for analysts comparing auxiliaries across various data collection years.

Additional information on how the data is collected is available on the CFS website


– A product that an establishment produces, sells, or distributes. This does not include items that are considered as excess or waste of the establishment’s operation. Respondents report the description and the five-digit Standard Classification of Transported Goods (SCTG) code for the commodity contained in the shipment. Shipments involving multiple commodities are classified as the commodity with the greatest weight in the total shipment.

Classification System

North American Industry Classification System (NAICS)

– The North American Industry Classification System (NAICS) is the standard used by Federal statistical agencies in classifying business establishments for the purpose of collecting, analyzing, and publishing statistical data related to the U.S. business economy. NAICS was developed under the auspices of the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), and adopted in 1997 to replace the Standard Industrial Classification (SIC) system. NAICS groups industries into 20 broad sectors (as opposed to 10 sectors under SIC), identified by a six-digit code (SIC had a four-digit code) and is based on the type of the establishment, not the type of commodity. The SIC was used in conducting the 1993 and 1997 CFS. Beginning with the 2002 CFS, the NAICS was used.

[Note: The NAICS hierarchy for the current 1,170 industries is digits 1 & 2 digits – Industry Sector, 3- Subsector, 4- Industry Group, 5- NAICS Industry, 6- National Industry]

Standard Classification of Transported Goods (SCTG)

– The commodities shown in CFS data are classified using the SCTG coding system. The SCTG coding system was developed jointly by agencies of the United States and Canadian governments based on the Harmonized Commodity Description and Coding System (Harmonized System) to address statistical needs in regard to products transported. The SCTG employs a five-digit numbering system, the structure of which is hierarchical consisting of four levels. Beginning with the 1997 CFS, the SCTG system was used.

Attributes of Shipments

Tons shipped

– The total weight of the entire shipment. Respondents are to report the weight in pounds. Aggregated pounds are converted to short-tons (2,000 pounds). The ton totals in the CFS represent the sum of separate shipments of a commodity as it moves through the production and consumption segments of the supply chain; hence the tonnage of goods may be counted more than once in the production life cycle (e.g., goods that are moved through distribution centers).

Value of shipments

– The dollar value of the entire shipment. This is defined as the net selling value, exclusive of freight charges and excise taxes. The value data are displayed in millions of dollars. The total value of shipments, as measured by the CFS, and the U.S. Gross Domestic Product (GDP) provide different measures of economic activity in the United States and are not directly comparable. GDP is the value of all goods produced and services performed by labor and capital located in the United States. The value of shipments, as measured by the CFS, is the market value of goods shipped from manufacturing, mining, wholesale, and select retail and service establishments, as well as warehouses and managing offices of multiunit establishments. Three important differences between GDP and value of shipments:

  1. GDP captures goods produced by all establishments located in the United States, while CFS measures goods shipped from a subset of all goods-producing establishments.
  2. GDP measures the value of goods produced and of services performed. CFS measures the value of goods shipped.
  3. GDP counts for only the value-added at each step in the production of a product. CFS captures the value of shipments of materials used to produce or manufacture a product, as well as the value of shipments of the finished product itself. This means that the value of the materials used to produce a particular product contributes multiple times to the value of the commodity in the CFS.

Mode of transportation

– The type of transportation used for moving a shipment to its domestic destination.

Truck – includes ‘Private truck’ -Trucks operated by employees of this establishment or the buyer/receiver of the shipment. Includes trucks providing dedicated services to the establishment, and ‘For-hire truck – Truck operated by common or contract carriers made under a negotiated rate.

Rail – Any common rail carrier or private railroad.

Water – includes ‘Inland Water’ – (also known as Shallow Draft vessels) Inland Water refers to vessels or barges operating primarily in inland or coastal waterways, both within and along the borders of the United States, such as rivers, lakes (excluding the Great Lakes), coastal waters, locks, and canals. This also includes ‘Great Lakes’ – any vessel or barge operating on the Great Lakes, and ‘Deep Sea’ – (also known as Deep Draft vessels). Deep Sea refers to vessels or barges operating primarily in the open waters of the ocean, mostly outside the borders of the United States.

Pipeline – includes the movements of liquid or gas commodities (i.e., oil, petroleum, gas, slurry, etc.) through pipelines that extend to other establishments or locations beyond the shipper’s establishment. This does not include aqueducts for the movement of water.

Air – Any shipment sent by an air route to its destination. This includes shipments carried by truck to or from an airport.

Parcel – includes parcel, U.S. Postal Service, or courier shipments. These are considered multiple modes because this category includes all parcel shipments whether on the ground or via air tendered to a parcel or express carrier. Parcel shipments are limited to a maximum of 150 pounds. Parcel delivery/Courier/U.S. Parcel Post – Includes ground and air segments of shipments of packages and parcels. Parcel shipments are limited to a maximum weight of 150 pounds.

Commodity Codes List


0 – All Commodities

This measure includes every shipment sent.

Agricultural Products and Fish

1 – Live Animals and Fish

Live bovine animals; live swine; live poultry; live fish, including live eels; and live animals (except live shellfish, crustaceans such as crabs and lobsters, squid, octopus, and other aquatic invertebrates).

2 – Cereal Grains

Wheat; corn (except sweet); rye; barley; oats; grain sorghum; and cereal grains, including rice (excludes soy beans, and other oil seeds)

3 – Agricultural Products

Vegetables – potatoes, fresh or chilled (except sweet potatoes); tomatoes, fresh or chilled; onions, shallots, garlic, leeks, and onion sets, fresh or shilled; lettuce, fresh or chilled; leguminous vegetables, fresh or chilled; fresh or chilled vegetables; leguminous vegetables, dried (includes those for use as seed, but excludes milled vegetables); and dried vegetables (includes those used as seed, but excludes milled vegetables).

Fruits – oranges, fresh or chilled; grapefruit fresh or chilled; citrus fruit, fresh or chilled; bananas and plantains fresh or chilled; grapes fresh or chilled; melons fresh or chilled; apples fresh or chilled; fresh or chilled fruits, (excludes olives); dried grapes (includes raisins and currants); dried fruits (includes mixtures of dried fruit); nuts in a shell (not including peanuts); and shelled nuts not further processed (not including peanuts).

Other Agricultural Products – soy beans; peanuts, unroasted; linseed (flaxseed); colza or canola seeds; sunflower seeds; cotton seeds; mustard seeds; oil seeds and nuts; bulbs and roots and similar products, live trees and other plants, and mushroom spawn; seeds for sowing; fresh cut flowers; tobacco, not stemmed or stripped; stemmed and partially stemmed tobacco, raw cotton (not carded or combed); unprocessed coffee and unfermented tea; sugar beet and sugar cane; and agricultural products, including cotton linters, seaweed, and forestry products (except forage products and cereal straw, raw spices, natural rubber and gums, and plants processed for ornamentation).

4 – Animal Products

Cereal straw or husks and forage products; inedible flours, meals, and pellets or meat, fish, or seafood, and greaves; bran, sharps, and other residues of cereals or leguminous plants; oil cake and other solid residues from the manufacture of vegetable fats or oils; eggs in the shell; raw hides and skins (includes fur-skins); shorn or pulled greasy wool, animal hair not carded or combed, silk-worm cocoons suitable for reeling, and raw silk; residues and waste from the food industries used in animal feeding, and products of animal origin; dog or cat food put up for retail sale; animal feed preparations (including premixes and supplements)

5 – Meats

Meat except poultry, fresh, or chilled; meat except poultry, frozen; poultry, fresh or chilled; poultry, frozen; meat, salted, in brine, dried, or smoked; pig or poultry fat, not rendered; fresh or chilled fish; frozen fish; fish, salted, in brine, dried, or smoked; edible fish meal; aquatic invertebrates, live, fresh, chilled, frozen, salted, in brine, or dried; crustaceans in shell cooked by steaming or by boiling in water; preparations, extracts, and juices of meat including poultry (except soups and broths); and preparations, extracts, and juices of fish or seafood (aquatic invertebrates) (except soups and broths).

Grains, Alcohol, and Tobacco Products

6 – Milled Grains

Wheat flour, groats, and meal (except byproducts); malt; milled rice; corn flour, groats, and meal; starches and modified starches; inulin; wheat gluten; milled cereals and vegetables; and grains otherwise worked (except milling byproducts); pasta (including stuffed, canned, frozen, or dried); couscous; breakfast cereal foods, swelled or roasted; mixes and doughs for preparing bakery products (including batters); rice preparations, instant rice, and partially cooked rice; food preparations or cereals, flour, starch, or milk (including tapioca, malt extract, ice cream and milk shake mixes, puddings, and infant formula); baked snack foods (excludes cookies and crackers); frozen baked products, including quiche, pizza, and waffles; perishable baked products (including fresh bread, pastries, pies, pizza, and quiche); and dry baked products (including cookies, crackers, and taco shells)

7 – Other Foodstuffs

Milk and cream, un-concentrated and unsweetened; milk and cream, in powder, granules, or other solid forms; milk and cream; cheese and curds; ice cream, ice milk, sherbets and ices (excludes frozen yogurt, and ice cream and ice milk mixes); butter and other fats and oils derived from milk; dairy products (excludes mixtures of butter and vegetable oil, preparations based on milk, eggnog and flavored milk drinks); frozen vegetables and vegetable preparations (including French fries and vegetable mixtures); potato chips; processed or prepared vegetables, (including canned and pickled vegetables and relishes, but not including: frozen or dried vegetables; milled vegetables; soup mixes; tomato sauces; or other sauces); jams, jellies, marmalades, fruit or nut purees, and fruit or nut pastes; processed or prepared nuts, peanuts, or seeds (except purees and pastes, but not including roasted nuts and peanut butter); processed or prepared fruit, including canned fruit (except dried); frozen fruit and vegetable juices (does not include beverages based on juices, such as -ades or nectars); non-frozen fruit and vegetable juices (does not include beverages based on juices, such as -ades or nectars); processed coffee (including roasted or ground); processed (fermented) tea; spices, including unprocessed spices; animal fats and oils and their fractions, not chemically modified (does not include inedible flours, meals and pellets); soy-bean oil; colza (canola) oil; corn oil; other fixed vegetable fats and oils and their fractions, not chemically modified (except byproducts of wet corn milling, and oil seed waste and residues)

Non-liquid margarine (for liquid margarine); shortening; chemically modified fats and oils, animal or vegetable waxes, and prepared edible fats; flours and meals of oil seeds (except flours and meals of mustard, and oil seed waste and residues); raw cane or beet sugar, in solid form; refined cane or beet sugar and chemically pure sucrose, in solid form; glucose (corn sugar) and glucose syrup (corn syrup); other sugars in solid form, molasses, and sugar syrups with no added flavoring or colorings, including maple sugar and syrup (excludes byproducts of sugar extraction. Sugar confectionery not containing cocoa, including glace products (except sugarless gum); chocolate confectionery; cocoa beans, paste, butter, and powder, and cocoa preparations

Tomato sauces (including ketchup and chili sauces); sauces and sauce mixes, prepared mustard, mustard flours and meals, and mixed condiments and seasonings, including salad dressings; soups and broths (including mixes), and baby or dietetic foods; syrups and concentrates used in food preparations or beverages; flavoring powders, extracts, or essences; processed eggs including egg albumin; yeasts and baking powder; sugar syrups with added flavors and /or colors, including table syrups; edible preparations, including protein concentrates and vinegar; carbonated soft drinks; other sweetened or flavored water; water, neither sweetened nor flavored; and ice and non-alcoholic beverages (excludes dry ice (carbon dioxide)).

8 – Alcohol

Beer (malt beer) (excludes non-alcoholic beer); wine and other fermented beverages (excludes non-alcoholic wine); denatured ethyl alcohol, and under-natured ethyl alcohol that is 80% or more alcohol by volume; and spirits, liqueurs, and other spirituous beverages, and under-natured ethyl alcohol that is less than 80% alcohol by volume.

9 – Tobacco

Cigarettes; and tobacco products (except leaf tobacco)



Stone, Nonmetallic minerals, and Metallic Ores

10 – Building Stones

Calcareous monumental or building stone; and monumental or building stone, including slate (excludes dolomite)


11 – Natural Sands

Silica sands and quartz sands for construction use; and silica sands and quartz sands for industrial uses, and other sands.


12 – Gravel

Limestone flux; agricultural limestone; gravel and crushed or broken limestone and chalk; and gravel and crushed stone (except dolomite, slate, and limestone and chalk).


13 – Other Non-Metals

Table salt; salt; natural calcium phosphates, natural aluminum calcium-phosphates, and phosphate chalk; dolomite, including monumental, building, and crushed; sulfur, (except sublimed, precipitated, or colloidal); kaolinic clays including China; clays; pumice stone, emery, and natural abrasives; gypsum and anhydrite; asbestos; leucite, nepheline, and nepheline syenite; non-metallic minerals, (except natural asphalt, bitumen, shale, tar sands, and asphaltic rock; and precious and semi-precious stones; and mined fertilizers except calcium phosphates


14 – Metal Ore

Iron ores and concentrates; copper ores and concentrates; nickel ores and concentrates; aluminum ores and concentrates, including bauxite; lead ores and concentrates; zinc ores and concentrates; uranium or thorium ores and concentrates; titanium; and ores and concentrates



Coal and Petroleum Products

15 – Coal

Non-agglomerated bituminous coal; non-agglomerated anthracite; non-agglomerated lignite (except jet); and agglomerated coal including briquettes


17 – Gasoline Products

Crude petroleum oil and oils obtained from bituminous minerals; gasoline including aviation; and aviation turbine fuel (jet types A and B)


18 – Fuel Oils

Fuel oils including diesel and Bunker C


19 – Petroleum Products

Lubricating oils and greases (except mixtures and preparations containing less than 70% by weight of petroleum oils or oils obtained from bituminous materials; kerosene (except type A jet fuel; refined petroleum oils and oils obtained from bituminous minerals; liquefied natural gas; propane, liquefied; butane, liquefied (excluding chemically pure; liquefied gaseous hydrocarbons (excluding chemically pure); gaseous hydrocarbons in a gaseous state (excluding chemically pure); coke and semi-coke of coal, lignite, or peat, and retort carbon; petroleum coke, including calcined; petroleum asphalt; asphaltic mixtures based on natural asphalt, natural bitumen, petroleum asphalt, mineral tar, or mineral-tar pitch, and tarred macadam; and other coal products and products of petroleum refining, and natural asphaltic minerals       


20 – Basic Chemicals

Inorganic chemicals – Sodium hydroxide (caustic soda); potassium hydroxide (caustic potash); sulfur, sublimed, precipitated, or colloidal; hydrogen chloride (hydrochloric acid); sulfuric acid and oleum; inorganic acids, (except nitric and sulfonitric acid, and phosphoric acid); artificial corundum; aluminum oxide and aluminum hydroxide (does not include artificial corundum); carbon dioxide; hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen, and rare gases such as argon and helium; sodium sulfates; disodium carebonate, sodium hydrogencarbonate (sodium bicarbonate), and potassium carbonates; sodium or potassium compounds; titanium oxides, pigments, and preparations; inorganic pigments, and preparations and inorganic products used as luminophores; calcium carbide; silicon or tungsten carbides; metal compounds; chlorine; carbon black; alkali or alkaline-earth metals, rare-earth metals, scandium, yttrium, and mercury; and inorganic chemicals, including radioactive elements, isotopes, and compounds

Organic chemicals – Cyclic hydrocarbons; acyclic alcohols; phenols, phenol-alcohols, aldehydes, cyclic polymers of aldehydes, paraformaldehyde, ketones, and quinones (excludes their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated, or nitrosated derivatives); organic acids, their anhydrides, halides, peroxides, and peroxyacids, and their halogenated, sulfonated, nitrated, or nitrosated derivatives; acyclic hydrocarbons (except methane and propane); halogenated derivatives of hydrocarbons; sulfonamides, provitamins and vitamins, hormones, glycosides or vegetable alkaloids and their derivatives, antibiotics, and chemically pure sugars (excludes products put up in measured doses or for retail sales); organic dyes, pugments, lakes and toners; organic chemicals n.e.c. (excludes all cellulose derivatives)

Pharmaceutical and Chemical Products

21 – Pharmaceutical Products

Pharmaceutical products, including chemical mixtures for medical use, in any form; unmixed chemicals for medical use, put up in measured doses or for retail sale; biological products; bandages (including adhesive) and related products, prepared for medical use or in packages for immediate medical use; sutures; dental fillings; bone reconstruction cements; and chemical contraceptive preparations based on hormones or spermicides (excludes unmixed chemicals not in the forms specified above)

22 – Fertilizers

Animal or vegetable fertilizers and fertilizers produced by mixing or chemically treating animal or vegetable products; nitrogenous mineral or chemical fertilizers (including nitric acid, sulfonitric acids, and ammonia); phosphatic slag; phosphatic mineral or chemical fertilizers, n.e.c. (includes superphosphates and phosphoric acid); potassium chloride (potash); Potassic mineral or chemical fertilizers; fertilizers, including ammonium phosphate and fertilizers that are mixed or put up for retail sale


23 – Other Chemical Products

Paints and varnishes, including lacquers and distempers, and prepared water pigments for finishing leather; vegetable tanning extracts or coloring matter, tannins and their derivatives, animal coloring matter, mastics including putty, powdered glass, household dyes, surfacing preparations, and specialty preparations for paint, glass, or similar uses (excludes inorganic pigments; carbon black; and organic dyes, pigments lakes, and toners); inks; essential oils, resinoids, and mixtures of odoriferous substances used as raw materials; perfumery, cosmetic, or toilet preparations; soap, organic surface-active agents, cleaning preparations, polishes and creams, and scouring preparations; photographic or cinematographic film, plates, paper, paperboard, textiles, and chemical preparations for use; insecticides, rodenticides, fungicides, herbicides, anti-sprouting products, plant-growth regulators, disinfectants, and similar products (except chemicals not made up as preparations); glues and prepared glues; prepared explosives, pyrotechnic products, matches, pyrophoric alloys, and combustible preparations, (except cellulosic explosives not in prepared forms, and other explosives not in prepared forms); activated carbon, activated natural mineral products, and animal black; anti-knock preparations, oxidation or gum inhibitors, viscosity improvers, anti-corrosive preparations, and other prepared additives for mineral oils such as gasoline; hydraulic brake and transmission fluids containing none or less than 70% by weight of petroleum or bituminous oils; anti-freezing preparations; and prepared de-icing fluids; industrial monocarboxylic fatty acids and acid oils from refining

Water-treatment preparations (includes anti-scaling compounds, flocculating agents, and water-softening compounds; and chemical products and preparations, including turpentine and other chemical products of wood distillation or the manufacture of wood pulp, gelatin, enzymes, artificial waxes and prepared waxes, dental preparations except fillings, and lubricating preparations containing less than 70% petroleum

24 – Plastics and Rubbers

Plastics in primary forms; other cellulose derivatives; natural rubber and similar natural gums, reclaimed rubber, and synthetic rubber and factice, in primary forms or in plates, sheets, or strip; man-made fiber filament tow or staple fibers, not carded or combed; monofilaments of plastics of which any cross-sectional dimension exceeds 1 mm; rods; sticks; and profile shapes; plastics plates, sheets, film, foil, tape, strip, and other flat shapes, including combinations with other materials; plastics tubes, pipes, hoses, and fittings; plastics floor, wall, or ceiling coverings

Plastics bathtubs, shower-stalls, wash-basins, toilet bowls and tanks, toilet seats and covers, and similar sanitary ware; plastics closures and articles for conveying or packing goods; plastics household or toilet articles; plastics articles, including builders’ ware, hardware, fasteners, and apparel; tires, inner tubes, mud or tire flaps, and “camelback” strips for retreading, of vulcanized rubber (except tread rubber); tubes, pipes, and hoses, of vulcanized rubber (except hard rubber); and articles of rubber



Wood Products, Textiles and Leather

25 – Logs

Logs for pulping (pulpwood); logs for lumber; fuel wood; wood in the rough, treated with paint, stains, creosote, or other preservatives; and other untreated wood in the rough


26 – Wood Products

Wood chips or particles; lumber, treated; lumber, untreated; wood continuously shaped along any of its edges or faces; shingles and shakes; veneer sheets and sheets for plywood; particle board, fiberboard, and similar board of wood or other ligneous materials; plywood, veneered panels, and similar laminated wood including door-skins; windows, doors, and frames and thresholds; builders’ joinery and carpentry of wood, (except shingles and shakes); wood packing containers, cable drums, pallets and skids, and coopers’ products; and wood products, including wood charcoal, densified wood, and coffins


27 – Newsprint and Paper

Mechanical wood pulp; non-dissolving grades of soda or sulfate chemical wood pulp; dissolving grades of chemical wood pulp; pulp of fibrous cellulosic materials; newsprint in large rolls or sheets; uncoated paper for writing, printing or other graphic purposes, in large rolls or sheets; toilet or facial tissue stock, towel or napkin stock, and similar paper stock used for household or sanitary purposes, in large rolls or sheets; uncoated paper in large rolls or sheets; uncoated paperboard in large rolls or sheets; paper, coated, impregnated, treated, or worked, in large rolls or sheets; and paperboard, coated, impregnated, treated, or worked, in large rolls or sheets


28 – Paper Products

Toilet paper, towels, tampons, and similar articles of paper for household, sanitary, or hospital use, and paper articles of apparel; sacks and bags of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding, or cellulose fiber webs; other packing containers of paper, paperboard, cellulose wadding, or webs of cellulose fibers; wallpaper and similar wall coverings; envelopes, letter cards, plain postcards and correspondence cards, and boxed sets of paper stationery; paper or paperboard articles (except blank-books, office pads, and forms)


29 – Printed Products

Printed books, brochures, leaflets, and similar printed products (except advertising materials including catalogs; atlases and music books); newspapers; journals and periodicals; advertising material, commercial or trade catalogs, and similar printed products, including flyers; printed or illustrated postcards, messages, or announcements, and printed cards bearing personal greetings; manifold business-forms and interleaved carbon-sets; and printed products, including blank-books, binders, and albums


30 – Textiles

Textile fibers, processed but not spun or made into yarn, does not include raw cotton; other raw vegetable fibers; and raw animal fibers such as greasy wool); yarns and thread (except specialty yarns such as metallized or gimped); broad-woven fabrics (except of metallized yarn)

Knitted or crocheted fabrics; textile clothing and accessories, clothing made of artificial fur, and headgear (excludes clothing and accessories of plastics; of rubber; of leather or fur; of asbestos; of paper, except safety headgear); narrow-woven fabrics and related products; tufted carpets and other textile floor coverings; carpets and other textile floor coverings; textile household furnishings, including bed linens, table linens, toilet linens, curtains, quilts, comforters, pillows, and cushions (excludes household furnishings of plastics; of paper; and of other non-textile materials); nonwoven and felt fabrics; impregnated, coated, covered, or laminated textile fabrics, including rubberized; textiles and textile articles, (except garneted fibers, not further processed); footwear; leather and tanned or dressed fur-skins; luggage, cases, and containers of leather or allied materials; articles of leather, gut, or fur-skins, including apparel and clothing accessories (except leather sport gloves)



Base Metal and Machinery

31 – Non-Metallic Mineral Products

Hydraulic cements; refractory ceramic products, including mortars and mixes; ceramic pipes, conduits, guttering, and pipe fittings; ceramic flagstones; and ceramic paving, hearth, wall, or mosaic tiles; other ceramic construction products; China, porcelain, or other ceramic household or personal articles; ceramic sanitary fixtures; ceramic products; glass in sheets or profiles (includes worked glass or float, cast, rolled, drawn, or blown glass); glass containers for transporting or packing goods; safety glass, comprising toughened (tempered) or laminated glass; glassware used for table, kitchen, toilet, office, indoor decoration, or similar purposes; glass silvers, rovings, yarns, and chopped strands; glass and glass products, including optical fibers, woven products of glass fibers and other mineral wool; excluded communications and similar insulated optical cable); worked monumental or building granite and articles; worked monumental or building stone and articles; asphalt shingles; articles of asphalt or of similar material (excludes asphaltic mixtures); gypsum wallboard, sheets, and lath; plaster and articles of plaster, or of compositions based on plaster; non-refractory mortars and concretes, wet; non-refractory mortars and concretes, dry; building blocks and bricks, of cement, concrete, or artificial stone; concrete pipes; prefabricated structural components of concrete; articles of cement, concrete, artificial stone; quicklime, slaked lime, and hydraulic lime; exfoliated vermiculite, expanded clays, foamed slag, and similar expanded mineral materials; slag rock and similar mineral wools and thin sheets, webs, mattresses, boards, and similar nonwoven products of glass-fibers; articles of asbestos-cement, cellulose fiber-cement, or of similar materials, fabricated asbestos fibers, mixture with a basis of asbestos or with a basis of asbestos and magnesium carbonate and articles of such mixtures or of asbestos; and non-metallic mineral products


32 – Finished Metals

Ferro-alloys; iron and steel in primary forms and simi-finished forms, powders and granules; flat-rolled products or iron or steel, including plate, sheet, foil, and strip; bars, rods, angles, shapes, sections, and wire, of iron or steel; copper in unwrought forms, powders or flakes, and additive alloys; copper bars, rods, profiles, wire, plates, sheets, strips, and foil (including backed foil); unwrought forms of aluminum, and powders and flakes; aluminum bars, rods, profiles, and wire; aluminum plates, sheets, strip, and foil (including backed foil); lead in unwrought forms in finished basic shapes, or in powders or granules; and non-ferrous metal in unwrought forms, in finished basic shapes, or in powders or granules, including foil and backed foil (excludes precious metals)


33 – Base Metals

Pipes and tubes or iron and steel; pipes and tubes of base metals except iron and steel; pipe and tube fittings of iron or steel; pipe and tube fittings of base metals except iron and steel; metal doors and windows and their frames; metal structures and structural parts (except prefabricated buildings); nails, screws, bolts, nuts, washers, staples except in strips, and similar fastening articles; hand tools, small mechanical appliances for food preparations, and blades for saws; cutlery, including cutlery plated with precious metal (excludes cutlery of precious metal, and cutlery clad with precious metal); interchangeable tools for hand-or machine-tools, including for construction and mining tools; locks, mountings and fittings, racks and similar fixtures, and automatic door closers, of base metal; metal containers with a capacity not exceeding 300 liters (about 80 gallons) (except containers for compressed or liquefied gas); railway or tramway track construction materials of iron or steel; metal containers with a capacity greater than 300 liters (about 80 gallons) and metal containers for compressed or liquefied gas; springs and miscellaneous fabricated wire products (except electrically insulated products, and nails and staples); and articles of non-precious metal (except backed or printed foil)


34 – Machinery

Spark-ignition reciprocating internal-combustion engines for motor vehicles, of a cylinder capacity exceeding 1000cc; other internal-combustion piston engines (includes compression engines such as diesel and semi-diesel engines); parts of internal combustion piston engines (except pumps for liquids; crankshafts and camshafts; and bearings); steam, other vapor, or hydraulic turbines; turbo-jets, turbo-propellers, and other gas turbines, including for aircraft

Boilers, power or heating, and nuclear reactors; non-electric engines and motors, including fluid power and missile and rocket reaction engines; pumps for liquids and liquid elevators, including fluid power, vehicle, and service station pumps; air or vacuum pumps and air or other gas compressors, (including compressors for refrigerating and air conditioning equipment; fans (including blowers) and ventilating or recycling hoods incorporating a fan; air conditioning equipment (except compressors and evaporative air coolers); household refrigerating or freezing equipment (except compressors); commercial or industrial-type refrigerating or freezing equipment (except compressors); work trucks and tractors designed for lifting or for short distance transport of goods in factories, warehouses, docks, or airports (excludes trailers); lifting, handling, loading, or unloading machinery (excludes cranes for road use); moving, grading, leveling, scraping, excavating, tamping, compacting, extracting, or boring machinery for earth, minerals, or ores, pile drivers and extractors, and snow ploughs and blowers, (excludes motor vehicles for transporting goods; tractors); special purpose motor vehicles such as mobile drilling derricks; parts for the vehicles listed above; powered hand tools; and machinery for screening, mixing, etc. minerals, for drying, paving, etc.); dish-washing machines, machinery for cleaning or drying bottles or other containers, machinery for aerating beverages, and packing or wrapping machinery; agricultural, horticultural, forestry, and poultry- or bee-keeping machinery (excludes powered hand tools); tractors; trailers and wagons; and machinery for spraying or drying); textile manufacturing machines; laundry machines, including dryers, and sewing machines; machine-tools for working hard materials, including metal-working (excludes other machines for working hard materials, such as woodworking presses; machines for working with metal wire; and machines for use in metallurgy, in foundries, or in metal rolling mills; and in semiconductor manufacturing); powered hand-tool, pneumatic, hydraulic, or with a self-contained electric or non-electric motor, including tools for lawn or construction use; machines and apparatus for soldering, brazing or welding, for surface tempering, or for hot spraying of metals; and wire rods, electrodes, and similar products for use with such machines and apparatus; ball and roller bearings including mounted; transmission shafts and cranks, clutches, bearing housings and plain shaft bearings, gears and gearing, ball and roller screws, gear boxes and other speed changers, flywheels and pulleys, and shaft couplings (excludes gear motors; and roller and similar chain); machinery for making pulp, paper, or paperboard, including dryers and calendaring machines; book-binding, type-founding, type-setting, or printing machinery; molding boxes for metal foundry, mold bases, molding pattern, and molds for metal carbides, glass, minerals, rubber, plastics, or metal (except ingot molds); taps, cocks, valves, and similar appliances for pipes, boiler shells, tanks and vats or the like, including those for use in plumbing; semiconductor manufacturing machinery; and machinery



Electronics, Motorized Vehicles, and Precision Instruments

35 – Electronics

Electric motors, generators, generating sets, and rotary converters; electric or electric transformers, static converters including rectifiers, and inductors; electric cooking appliances; electro-thermic or electro-mechanical domestic appliances such as vacuum cleaners, blenders, juicers, and can openers (includes electrical heating resistors (except of carbon), but does not include: dishwashers); refrigerators; air conditioners; fans, including range hoods; or non-electric cooking or heating appliances (such as radiators or wood stoves); line telephone and telegraph switching apparatus (except parts); line telephone and telegraph communication apparatus, including telephones, fax machines, ISDN apparatus, and parts for telephone switching apparatus (excludes cellular telephones); electronic entertainment products, including CD players, TVs, VCRs, speakers, video cameras, earphones, amplifiers, and radio broadcast receivers (except parts of these goods); computer equipment; office equipment including point-of-sale devices and word-processing machines (excludes photocopiers, and facsimile machines); unrecorded media for audio, video, computer, or other use (does not include photographic film); computer software; pre-recorded media, (includes records, tapes, and CDs, but excludes software, and photographic film); transmission apparatus for radio or TV broadcasting; radio transmission and reception apparatus; radar apparatus; radio navigational-aid apparatus; and radio remote-control apparatus (includes cordless microphones, CB radios, cell phones, pagers, and television cameras, but does not include radio or television broadcast receivers, or parts for these products); capacitors (include power), resistor, (including variable resistor switches), and thermionic, cold-cathode, or photo-cathode valves and tubes (excludes heating resistors); printed circuits; diodes, transistor, and similar semiconductor devices, photosensitive semiconductor devices including photovoltaic cells, light-emitting diodes, mounted piezo-electric crystals, and chemical elements and components doped for use in electronics; electronic integrated circuits and micro-assemblies including memory chips, primary cells and primary batteries (includes alkaline, nickel-cadmium, and lithium batteries; secondary cells and storage batteries (includes motor vehicle batteries); apparatus for switching or protecting electrical circuits or for making connections to or in electrical circuits, and boards, panels, consoles, desks, cabinets, or similar bases equipped with these apparatus; ignition or starting equipment used for spark-ignition or compression-ignition internal combustion engines; generators (including dynamos and alternators); cutouts used with internal combustion engines; and wiring sets used in vehicles, aircraft or ships; lighting or signaling equipment, windshield wipers, or defrosters, used for motor vehicles or bicycles (does not include filament or discharge light bulbs); electric filament or discharge light bulbs, ultra-violet or infra-red bulbs, and arc-lamps, (including sealed beam lamp units for vehicles, and photographic flashbulbs); insulated electric conductors (including wire) co-axial cables, and optical fiber cables (does not include vehicle wiring sets); artificial graphite, colloidal or semi-colloidal graphite, preparations based on graphite or carbon, and articles of graphite or carbon; and electronic and electrical equipment and components, including electric conduits and fittings


36 – Motorized Vehicles

Automobiles and vans for fewer than 10 people (excludes parts); motor vehicles for fewer than 10 people (excludes parts; snowmobiles, golf carts, and in-plant personnel carriers; and armored fighting vehicles. This class does not contain any vehicle parts); motor vehicles for transporting goods, (including vehicles used in construction, mining, or agriculture); road tractors for semi-trailers (except parts); tractors except road tractors and work tractors (includes farm, lawn-and-garden, and track-laying tractors, but does not include tractor parts, or tractors); vehicles with a seating capacity of 10 or more persons (except parts); special-purpose motor vehicles including mobile cranes, drilling derricks, concrete mixers, and fire-fighting vehicles (except parts); chassis fitted with engines, and separate bodies, for motor vehicles; motorcycles and mopeds, and their parts (including side cars); bicycles and other cycles, and their parts; trailers and semi-trailers and parts, including camping trailers; armored fighting vehicles and their parts; vehicles (including snowmobiles; golf carts and in-plant personnel carriers (except their parts); and hand-carts, grocery carts, wheelbarrows, and their parts; brakes; gear boxes (except parts); road wheels; and metal stampings such as bumper, fender, door, hood, trim, and hub cap; parts for motor vehicles, including seat belts and seat covers (except parts for motorcycles, mopeds and armored fighting vehicles; and except engines and engine parts; pumps for liquids; filters; tires; glass; lighting and signaling equipment; ignition and starting equipment; windshield wipers and defrosters; seats; and catalytic converters)


37 – Transportation Equipment

Railway or tramway locomotives and self-propelled rolling-stock (excludes maintenance or service vehicle); railway or tramway maintenance or service vehicles (including self-propelled), and passenger coaches and freight cars (not self-propelled); parts of locomotives and rolling stock (excludes engines; electric motors and generators; pumps for liquids; and lighting equipment); track fixtures and fittings and their parts, mechanical signaling, safety, or traffic-control equipment, and containers specially designed and equipped for carriage by one or more transport modes; aircraft, except parts; spacecraft including satellites and suborbital and spacecraft launch vehicles, except parts; parts of aircraft and spacecraft (except internal combustion engines; turbines; other engines and motors; tires; pumps for liquids; filters; plastics; glass; lighting equipment; ignition and starting equipment; windshield wipers and defrosters; and seats); parachutes, rotochutes, aircraft-launching gear, deck-arresters, and flight simulators; pleasure or sporting vessels, and rowing boats (parts except for hulls should be classified according to what the article is); and commercial ships and boats and other floating structures


38 – Precision Instruments

Eyewear including contact lenses and other lenses, goggles, and frames; optical elements, instruments, and apparatus, (except photographic, cinematographic, and photocopying equipment); photographic (including cinematographic cameras, image projectors, enlargers, reducers, and projection screens; negato-scopes, and apparatus and equipment for film developing (excludes video-cameras); photocopying and thermos-copying machines; navigational instruments and appliances (except radar and radio navigational-aid apparatus); surveying, hydrographic, oceanographic, hydrological, meteorological, geophysical, drawing, mathematical calculating and length measuring hand instruments and appliances (except radar apparatus); apparatus based on the use of X-rays or alpha, beta, or gamma radiation; electro-medical equipment (except pacemakers); orthopedic appliances; fracture appliances; artificial body parts; and appliances that are worn, carried, or implanted in the body to compensate for medical condition; surgical and medical instruments and apparatus; instruments, apparatus, and appliances for medical, surgical, dental, or veterinary sciences, or for similar purposes, (excludes furniture; wheelchairs; and wadding, bandages, etc.); instruments and apparatus for measuring or checking electrical quantities; industrial process control instruments; instruments and appliances for testing mechanical properties of materials; instruments and appliances for measuring or detecting ionizing radiations; gas or liquid supply or production meters; and other instruments and apparatus for measuring, checking, testing, or controlling



Furniture and Miscellaneous Manufactured Products

39 – Furniture

Mattresses and mattress supports (except inflatable and waterbed mattresses of plastics, or of rubber); household or office furniture, including kitchen cabinets (except desk top furniture, which is classified by its material; and TV and stereo cabinets); medical, surgical, dental, or veterinary furniture; furniture; and lamps, lighting fittings, and illuminated signs or name plates (except for motor vehicles)
40 – Miscellaneous

Arms (excludes swords, daggers, etc.); munitions and ammunitions, including bombs, grenades, and missiles; toys and games and baby carriages, including coin-operated arcade games; sporting equipment; clocks and watches; prefabricated buildings including tool or garden sheds; writing or drawing instruments and inked ribbons and pads; precious metal forms and shapes; pearls, precious or semi-precious stones including unworked; articles of pearls, stones, or precious metals including jewelry, catalysts, anodes, and tableware; and coins; costume jewelry; musical instruments; brooms, brushes, mechanical floor-sweepers, mops, feather dusters and paint pads or rollers, including brushes for floor scrubbers, polishers and other machines, appliances, or vehicles; sewing and knitting needles (including for machines), crochet hooks, hook and eye fasteners, safety pins, straight pins, buttons, buckles and clasps, tubular and bifurcated rivets, snap fasteners, zippers, and similar notions; works of art, collections, and antiques; and miscellaneous manufactured products


41 – Waste

Metal slag, ash, and residues; other waste and scrap of ferrous metals; other waste and scrap of non-ferrous metals, including precious metals; sawdust and wood waste and scrap; waste and scrap of paper or paperboard; waste and scrap of glass; and non-metallic waste and scrap


43 – Mixed Freight

Items (including food) for grocery and convenience stores; supplies and food for restaurants and fast food chains; hardware or plumbing supplies; office supplies; and miscellaneous